ramp, some of the energy was converted to kinetic energy. A critical analysis of the potential energy curve helps better understand the properties of the material. MS-PS3-1: Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object. • If we only impart enough energy to promote an. The ball has Kine-hd energy. An object high above the ground has potential energy because of the work it took to get it there and the work it will do when it falls. Contributors; When a free positive charge q is accelerated by an electric field, it is given kinetic energy (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)). 25 Best Introduction to Energy Worksheet Answers from kinetic and potential energy worksheet pdf , source:duediligencetactics. Kinetic energy is energy possessed by a body by virtue of its movement. Kinetic energy. A golf pro swings his driver which weighs. Compare potential and kinetic energy 0607. Angular/Circular Motion Capacitors Centripetal Force Charges Circuits Current Diffraction Doppler Effect Electric Fields Electricity Electric Potential Energy Forces Friction Fundamental Frequency Gauss's Law Gravity Harmonic Motion Impulse Induction Kinematics Kinetic Energy Light / EM Spectrum Magnetic Fields Magnetism Momentum Newton's Laws. Potential Energy yPotential energy is the stored energy of position possessed by an object. The kinetic energy of the pie 32 J. Learn about the Law of Conservation of Energy and how energy changes from potential energy to kinetic energy. If all of the objects potential energy is converted into kinetic energy just before it hits the. Injuries associated with Pneumatic energy generally consist of the following:. Recall that is the speed of the particle, so that the kinetic energy can be written as. Oregon OSHA’s guide to controlling hazardous energy Understanding energy Energy and motion Energy is the power for doing work. potential energy videos, quickly find teacher-reviewed educational resources. Any object which has motion has kinetic energy. Potential energy is broken down into 1) gravitational potential energy 2) elastic potential energy answer the first question. Kinetic energy can be transferred between objects or changed into potential energy. The spring expands and the dart leaves the gun barrel after the trigger is pulled. Energy Analysis • Assumptions – Negligible Kinetic and Potential differences. POTENTIAL AND KINETIC ENERGY PRACTICE PROBLEMS Show all of your math when answering the problems below. Its potential energy was converted into kinetic energy. This worksheet helps students understand both kinetic and potential energy. Potential Energy Worksheet and KEY. Kovacs and P. Impulse and momentum are directly related to each other. It is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all molecules. (potential energy), a lighted flashlight (kinetic energy). Energy, Work and Power WORKSHEET: KINETIC AND POTENTIAL ENERGY PROBLEMS 1. – A ball rolling down a hill. CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Most energy methods used in mechanics are based on a balance of energy, often referred to as the conservation of energy. between the two times we measure the energy. A boulder has more potential energy when it's at the top of a hill than when it's rolling down. E K = ½(8 kg)(5 m/s) 2 = 100 J. In the upper course, the gradient of the river is steep and the river is high above sea level giving it a large amount of gravitational potential energy that can be converted to kinetic energy later on. The process is analogous to an object being accelerated by a gravitational field. 1 Define work done, potential energy, kinetic energy, efficiency and power 1. maximum deformation when the kinetic energy has been completely converted into strain energy. JE What is the mass of the coaster if it has 19 ,08ðJ of potential energy at point 3? (answer is in kg) 7001 28m '15m Now that you know the mass of the coaster, how fast (velocity) is the coaster traveling at point 3 if it as 47,920 J. The potential energy decreases while the kinetic energy increases. Which letter shows the ball when it has the maximum potential energy? _____ 3. Kinetic and Potential Energy Worksheet Name _____ Classify the following as a type of potential energy or kinetic energy (use the letters K or P) 1. 8m/s2) x height. This minimum applied reverse potential is called stopping potential V 0. Kinetic - Potential Energy 5. Energy is separable into kinetic and potential components. (Be sure to show your work!) 21. Kinetic energy is the energy which results from the movement of objects. Potential and Kinetic Energy: Roller Coasters Student Version Key Concepts: • Energy is the ability of a system or object to perform work. _____ ANSWER KEY FOR POTENTIAL VS. are two main types of energy, potential energy and kinetic energy. Right now the focus is on a kind of potential energy called gravitational potential energy. Chemical energy is transformed to heat and kinetic energy as the panda eats the bamboo leaves. The ball leaves your hand at 30m/s. Potential energy is stored energy. Conservation of Mechanical Energy problems relate speed of an object at different positions. • Why smaller droplets are not stable and tend to fuse into larger ones?. Electrical energy: Electrons can flow out of a battery or capacitor and do work on another electrical component such as a light bulb. Stored energy or energy due to position is known as _____ energy. Task 1 Google Kinetic and Potential Energy. Distribute copies of the Kinetic vs. The residual energy of the ground state, that is, the energyinexcess of theclassical minimum, isknown as zero point energy. When the position is changed, the total energy remains unchanged but is converted to a different type of energy, like kinetic energy. View the listing of shops that are available on Teacher's Notebook. The total energy of a system remains constant. Energy can be converted from one form to another (potential energy can be converted to kinetic energy) but the total energy within the domain remains fixed. The amount of kinetic energy that a body possesses is dependent on the speed of its motion and its mass. Or equivalently, consider the potential energy, V(x) = (1=2)kx2. Define kinetic energy. An example is gravity. 4Wind power also can contribute to the nation’s energy diversity and security. Directions: Determine the best match between basic types of energy and the description provided. o All of our labs provide a perfect example. are two main types of energy, potential energy and kinetic energy. If there is no air resistance, or other restrictions, all of the potential energy will be converted to kinetic energy when the object has fallen the distance H. We say that the potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy, which is then spent driving in the nail. Step 5: Heat energy, again, goes into the vibration and rotational motions of the molecule. For a particle undergoing simple harmonic motion, the displacement x is given by equation 1. The Potential energy changes into kinetic energy when an object moves. 1 Magnetic Forces and Potential Energy Magnetic forces and potential energy - MBL In this experiment you will determine how the force between two magnets varies with distance, and investigate the connection between force and potential energy. The frictionless roller coaster is a classic potential and kinetic energy example problem. Compare and contrast these two main types of energy by completing the chart titled. The total amount of mechanical energy is the sum of these two forms of energy. When energy is stored up and waiting to do things, we call it potential energy; "potential" simply means the energy has the ability to do something useful later on. The total kinetic plus potential energy of a system is defined to be its mechanical energy, \((KE + PE)\). In reality, we lose a little energy to heating up the air and the floor, so our conservation of energy formula (mgh=1/2mv 2) has to be modified to include the lost energy. In physics, the potential energy of an object depends on its position. In your physics class, you may be asked to interpret or draw an energy diagram. However, before we study energy, we must first understand the concept of work and how it relates to energy. The more energy that a turbine pulls from the air, the more that air is slowed. One manner in which kinetic energy can be stored or retained is in the rotational mass of a flywheel. Kinetic and Potential Energy Webquest Complete the steps as follows. Answers To Potential Vs Kinetic Energy This book list for those who looking for to read and enjoy the Answers To Potential Vs Kinetic Energy, you can read or download Pdf/ePub books and don't forget to give credit to the trailblazing authors. Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity; it does not have a direction. We are an education focused, safe venue for teachers, schools, and home learners to access educational for the classroom. Gasoline in a storage tank(b) Potential Energy _____3. Which letter shows the ball when it has the maximum kinetic energy? _____ 2. A yoyo waiting to bounce is potential energy and yoyo working is kinetic energy. The total energy of the electron outside the metal can be expressed as the sum of its potential energy, E V, and kinetic energy, E k: Equation 1. At what point in the pendulum's swing is its potential energy equal to its kinetic energy? mid-point When is its kinetic energy at its maximum? bottom Circle the correct formula for kinetic energy (KE). That is because you are applying a force over a displacement. Work done by a constant force: Gravitational force V. Work done by a variable force. An object gets kinetic energy from its mass and velocity. These are the books for those you who looking for to read the Answers To Potential Vs Kinetic Energy, try to read or download Pdf/ePub books and some of authors may have disable the live reading. Electrical energy: Electrons can flow out of a battery or capacitor and do work on another electrical component such as a light bulb. ! = work function: amount of energy binding the electron to the metal Recall that E=hf gives the energy of the photon. As the flow stream "hits" the end of the catheter, the kinetic energy (which is high) is converted to potential (or pressure) energy, and added to the potential energy to equal the total energy. The energy developed by heat effects will be neglected. Then choose the correct formula to use and solve the problem. – A ball rolling down a hill. We study this F(x) = ¡kx force because: 1The ironic thing about water waves is that although they might be the flrst kind of wave that comes to. Which letter Shows the ball When it has the maximum potential NRG ? 3. Created By Ashley Scott In 22 Playlist(s). Kinetic Energy: _____ 1. Relative to wind, wave, and tidal resources, the energy resource potential for ocean current power is the least understood, and its technology is the least mature. Once the football is thrown we will say 80% of the gravitational potential energy is kinetic energy and 20% is heat energy. 8 m/sec every second (9. Calculating kinetic energy If we know the mass of an object and its velocity we can determine the amount of kinetic energy. correct formula to use: KE= 1/2 m v2. Find the gravitational potential energy of a light that has a mass of 13. Created By Ashley Scott In 22 Playlist(s). Potential energy is the waiting-to-be-tapped kind – a stretched rubber band, a swimmer poised for a dive, chemicals in a battery – kinetic energy is energy in motion – a car accelerating down a highway, sound waves from a speaker and a runner running a marathon. Translational vs Rotational kinetic energy? So today i was working on a free response question for physics and got extremely confused. 3 Calculate the work done for constant forces, including forces not along the line of motion. _____ ANSWER KEY FOR POTENTIAL VS. The process is analogous to an object being accelerated by a gravitational field. Wanna know how? No, you don't need a Harry Potter wand. Use this activity to help students learn the difference between potential and kinetic energy. Put the correct letter in the blank. An example that most people are familiar with is the energy released when fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned. With this value and for a 162-lb batter swinging a 2-lb (32 oz) bat, the bat has half of the available kinetic energy. Let's look under the hood of the potential energy calculator. Lock out or tag out the energy sources. Calculate mass, acceleration of gravity, height by entering the required values in the potential energy calculator. How do the forms of energy in item 1 differ from another? Be sure to discuss mechanical vs. As the electron moves from cathode to anode, however, its electrical potential energy decreases as it is converted into kinetic energy all along the way. energy changed to kinetic energy in the lis-tener’s eardrum, which changes to electrical energy before reaching the listener’s brain. A kinetic energy B thermal energy C potential energy: 5. Lab Preparation A simple Atwood’s machine consists of a couple of masses hanging over a pulley as shown in Figure 1. Kinetic Energy Directions: Determine the best match between basic types of energy and the description provided. There are many uses of kinetic energy in sports. For example, if you are at the top of a hill, you have more potential energy than if you are at the bottom of the hill. A 1 kg rock is at a height of 100 meters. Ek = ½ mv2 Ek = kinetic energy (J) m = mass (kg) v = velocity (m/s). Energy exists in universe in many forms such as solar energy, thermal energy, electrical energy, magnetic energy, gravitational energy and chemical energy etc. As part of their notes they were required to add an illustration to show the difference between potential and kinetic energy above their definition. Energy can be converted from one form to another (potential energy can be converted to kinetic energy) but the total energy within the domain remains fixed. KINETIC ENERGY Objects have energy because of their motion; this energy is called kinetic energy. potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. Determine the kinetic energy of a 1000-kg roller coaster car that is moving with a speed of 20. In muscles and nerves, chemical potential energy stored in covalent bonds is transformed, respectively, into kinetic and electric energy. states separated by a potential barrier. Kinetic and Potential Energy Online Quiz. Examples of external energy include gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is energy associated with motion, whether in a straight line of a circle. Use this activity to help students learn the difference between potential and kinetic energy. I cut out the Kinetic and Potential Energy mats and glued them in-side a color file folder. · Friction is the resistance to motion created by two objects moving against each other. Energy is the capacity to do work. 2) Find the potential energy at point A using the PE formula. gravity, force in a spring, electrostatic attraction). Examples of potential energy are: a soccer ball about to be kicked, a bird about to take off, a kangaroo about to jump, an. Kinetic energy is energy in an object because of its motion. Temperature vs. Due to its very simple configuration, the flywheel. What is kinetic energy? This is the currently selected item. Yet in the absence of external forces doing work, the total mechanical energy of the car is conserved. An object with potential energy has the potential to do work. This potential is only released when the object falls. It is the opposite of stored, or potential, energy. Kinetic energy: A mass is moving and can do work when it hits another object. Like work and potential energy, the standard metric unit of measurement for kinetic energy is the Joule. The energy developed by heat effects will be neglected. Explore pros and cons of each energy source, including cost of production, pollution output, and availability. You can assume, roughly, that an arrow’s kinetic energy is reduced by around 3-4% for every 10 yards it travels. Discuss what would happen if a resistor was not included in a circuit. Energy is found in different forms, such as light, heat, sound and motion. A ball held in the air has gravitational potential energy. The additional speed due to the increased kinetic energy keeps the planet from being pulled into the sun by the greater gravitational force it experiences at this point in its path. o The total energy of the system remains constant because no more energy was created and no energy was destroyed. The situation is analogous. California Science Content Standards: • 1. Both potential and kinetic energy b. Potential Energy vs. For the exit ticket, the student will write or make a video (2-3 minutes)to reflect about what they learned during the lesson that day, and also give an example of kinetic and potential energy. The Hamiltonian in this problem contains only the kinetic energy of rotation; no potential energy is present because the molecule is undergoing unhindered "free rotation". Get ready to introduce your third graders to the amazing world of physical science! This worksheet will teach your little scientists the difference between kinetic (movement) and potential (stored) energy. Kinetic Energy, Mass, and Speed 2 Overview & Purpose: The same physics that govern the observable world governs the movement of electrons in an electrical grid. Compare and contrast these two main types of energy by completing the chart titled. Potential vs. Kinetic energy is a form of energy that results from an object's motion. Potential: _____ Solve the following word problems using the kinetic and potential energy formulas (Be sure to show your work!) 15. Some forms of energy include light, heat, chemical, nuclear, electrical energy and mechanical energy. An object gets potential energy from height, mass and gravity. While we can calculate forces and accelerations of an object as it moves along a complicated path, the use of energy gives us a way to bypass these complex calculations, and understand motion in a simpler way. If the roller coaster car in the above problem were moving with twice the speed, then what would be its. Math Practice On a separate sheet of paper, solve the following problems. Which species or set of species has the highest kinetic energy? _____ 10. Positive vs Negative Work, Speeding Up vs Slowing Down - Increasing / Decreasing Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy 22. Or equivalently, consider the potential energy, V(x) = (1=2)kx2. potential energy is stored energy of position. Remember, kinetic energy is the energy of motion and potential energy is stored energy due to an object's shape or position. Compare the differences between kinetic and potential energy. Kinetic and potential energy are the two types of energy. At maximum displacement from the equilibrium point, potential energy is a maximum while kinetic energy is zero. The total energy (kinetic + potential) of an electron in an atom or a molecule is always one-half its potential energy. Potential energy and kinetic energy. Students will ana-. Flywheels store energy until it is needed. Potential: _____ Solve the following word problems using the kinetic and potential energy formulas (Be sure to show your work!) 15. Neither potential nor kinetic energy 3. Right now the focus is on a kind of potential energy called gravitational potential energy. Draw and label three lines (one for kinetic, one for potential, and one for total mechanical energy). Verify the equipment is isolated from hazardous energy and de-energized. - Spring force. yThe equation to calculate potential energy is, ym represents the mass of the object, yh represents the height, and yg represents the acceleration of gravity (9. Kinetic energy. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The three factors that determine the amount of potential energy in an object are. potential energy videos, quickly find teacher-reviewed educational resources. We want to. Oregon OSHA’s guide to controlling hazardous energy Understanding energy Energy and motion Energy is the power for doing work. Energy is the capacity to do work. Potential energy has the ability to become kinetic energy. 1) This is called the Lagrangian. Introduction: Gravitational Potential Energy is the stored up energy in an object due to its weight and height above the ground. 2) Find the potential energy at point A using the PE formula. While kinetic energy of an object is relative to the state of other objects in its environment, potential energy is completely independent of its environment. The provided lesson plan gives your steps for walking students through the activity, important key words students need to know, and how to modify the activity for your different student demographics in the classroom. Potential energy is lost and kinetic energy is gained. Chapter 7 – Kinetic energy, potential energy, work I. Potential Energy Potential Energy is energy of position. View the listing of shops that are available on Teacher's Notebook. Kinetic Energy Demonstration in the Classroom Materials: marble, billiard ball (or dense rubber ball), bucket of water Procedures: 1. Potential and Kinetic Energy: Roller Coasters Teacher Version This lab illustrates the type of energy conversions that are experienced on a roller coaster, and as a method of enhancing the students' understanding of that concept, they will create their own roller coasters to test out their ideas. Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free. Both the potential energy and kinetic energy decrease. A Compare & Contrast Diagram showing Potential and Kinetic Energy. Explore different tracks and view the kinetic energy, potential energy and friction as she moves. The kinetic energy would be KE= ½mv 2,where m is the mass of the pendulum, and v is the speed of the pendulum. That is because you are applying a force over a displacement. doc) to students, and have them silently fill in the answers. At the bottom of a hill, the kinetic energy of the cars should be equal to the potential energy of the car at the top of the hill. However, a change in average kinetic energy is not directly proportional to a change in average speed. Kinetic Energy - Kinetic energy of a rigid body is the energy possessed by its motion; Mass Moment of Inertia - Mass Moment of Inertia (Moment of Inertia) depends on the mass of the object, its shape and its relative point of rotation - Radius of Gyration; Rotating Shafts and Torques - Torsional moments acting on rotating shafts. Light energy b. • If we only impart enough energy to promote an. The total energy (kinetic + potential) of an electron in an atom or a molecule is always one-half its potential energy. So if we have 100 ft-lb initial energy (at 0 yards), at 10 yards you can expect roughly 97-97 ft-lbs. These are the books for those you who looking for to read the Answers To Potential Vs Kinetic Energy, try to read or download Pdf/ePub books and some of authors may have disable the live reading. At night, street lamps convert electrical energy to light energy. The process is analogous to an object being accelerated by a gravitational field, as if the charge were going down an electrical hill where its electric potential energy is converted into kinetic energy, although of course the sources of the forces are very. Kinetic energy is energy that is working. Kinetic Energy Directions: Determine the best match between basic types of energy and the description provided. the gravitational potential energy of the system to be when the projectile leaves the spring at ". Do you think that the kinetic energy will change if the mass of the. _____ ANSWER KEY FOR POTENTIAL VS. Potential energy is energy that is. With the friction on, does the kinetic energy ever get as high as the total energy? If so, when? If not, why? With the friction on, the kinetic energy doesn’t get as high as the total energy because the friction causes heat, and some thermal energy is produced. This worksheet helps students understand both kinetic and potential energy. Summing the kinetic energy and potential energy we obtain,. In order to work a problem using Conservation of Energy, you need to know either that there are no significant forces taking energy out of the system or the size of those forces. Objects gain or lose energy only by exchanging it with other objects. If the velocity of an object doubles, the kinetic energy increases by a factor of four. Created Date: 4/7/2017 8:23:51 AM. It is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all molecules. Use the gravitational potential energy equation, and rearrange it to solve for height. For kinetic energy, we don't have to change much - the main difference between the kinetic energy of a rock on a hill and the kinetic energy of a large collection of molecules is how we measure it. Build your own tracks, ramps, and jumps for the skater. Potential energy is energy attributed to an object by virtue of its position. So, take a read of the article which will help you to understand the differences between kinetic and potential energy. Per OSHA, there are hundreds of injuries annually due to improper handling of Pneumatic energy. It's the inert energy stored in any object due to its specific configuration and position in presence of a force. Calculate it. All energy can be described as being in two states - as potential energy or kinetic energy. Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversion : Kinetic-Potential Energy Conversion Roller coasters work because of the energy that is built into the system. Then choose the correct formula to use: KE= 1/2 m v2 PE = mass x gravity (10) x height OR Weight X Height 1. Marble- Potential Energy. have great potential, you will likely reach your goals. This new combination of the basic. Remember, kinetic energy is the energy of motion and potential energy is stored energy due to an object’s shape or position. Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy. It’s energy in motion (moving objects). Introduction: Gravitational Potential Energy is the stored up energy in an object due to its weight and height above the ground. At the atomic scale, the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules is sometimes referred to as heat energy. a ball in your hand has more potential energy than a ball on the ground. Kinetic Energy. potential energy videos, quickly find teacher-reviewed educational resources. A skier at the top of the mountain(a) Kinetic Energy ___b___2. non-mechanical, kinetic vs. The kinetic energy of the pie 32 J. Potential and Kinetic Energy. As nonrenewable energy sources become more scarce, the concept of storing kinetic energy in a form in which it can be reused to improve the efficiency of a system is very attractive. ramp, some of the energy was converted to kinetic energy. maximum deformation when the kinetic energy has been completely converted into strain energy. Therefore, the total energy in simple harmonic motion will always be constant. Step 5: Heat energy, again, goes into the vibration and rotational motions of the molecule. Potential and Kinetic Energy Worksheet Kinetic Energy (KE) = ½ mass times velocity squared KE = ½ mv2 Potential Energy (PE) = mass times the acceleration due to gravity times height PE = mgh = N*h (g= 9. A yoyo waiting to bounce is potential energy and yoyo working is kinetic energy. The corresponding barriers will be further lowered to 0. Kinetic energy is evaluated according to the environment of the object, whereas potential energy is the non-relative to the environment of the object. We want to make a graph of kinetic and potential energy as a function of time. speed and describe what is happening. MS-PS3-2 A system of objects may also contain stored (potential) energy, depending on their relative positions. At the bottom of a hill, the kinetic energy of the cars should be equal to the potential energy of the car at the top of the hill. It is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all molecules. (potential energy), a lighted flashlight (kinetic energy). Chemical potential energy is energy that is stored in atoms and the bonds between atoms and can be released by various chemical reactions. worksheet: Potential Vs Kinetic Energy Worksheets Test Formula List worksheet: Potential Vs Kinetic Energy Worksheets It Was Found That Each Angle Required The Same Lesson 3 - Understanding Energy (with a Pendulum). Flywheels store energy until it is needed. When an object is allowed to fall, the concentrated gravitational potential energy is converted into the kinetic energy of motion. We want to. Chapter 7 – Kinetic energy, potential energy, work I. It is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all molecules. When we examine an object dropped from rest in a state of freefall we notice that as gravity accelerates the object towards the surface of the earth, not only does the object's kinetic energy increases as its speed increases but its potential energy decreases as its height above the surface of the earth decreases. When used loosely, electrical energy refers to energy that has been converted from electric potential energy. energy (PE=mgh), and that potential energy can be converted into kinetic energy (KE=1/2mv 2). The ball has _____ energy. Kinetic And Potential Energy. At the top it has its maximum potential energy. This lesson provides a problem that reviews the procedure to calculate kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Thus, the right side of the above equation can be called the General Integral Equation for Conservation of Energy in a Control Volume, where e = total energy of the fluid per unit mass, , = internal energy per unit mass, = kinetic energy per unit mass, gz = potential energy per unit mass. Thanksgiving Worksheets Pdf. Potential energy is stored energy and waiting to work. height and KE vs. Search this site. E kinetic = ½mΔV 2 = ½m(V f 2-V i 2) Example: A 8kg ball is moving at 5m/s. Conservation Of Energy For A Rigid Body Work Done By Gravity If we have a rigid body instead of a particle, the same basic analysis applies. We interpret the = sign to mean that the gravitational potential energy of the ball before it fell was converted into an exactly. You can put energy into an object. After leaving the ramp, the marble slows down and rolls to a stop because of friction. Lesson 39: Kinetic Energy & Potential Energy Kinetic Energy You’ve probably heard of kinetic energy in previous courses using the following definition and formula… Any object that is moving has kinetic energy. Stored energy or energy due to position is known as _____ energy. · Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. What is the car's kinetic energy? 2. Hence a solid has a fixed shape and volume. The total energy that a river possesses varies from one stage to another because of changes in the river’s height, gradient and speed. Examples of external energy include gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. Thus, for example, when an electron is shifted from a 1s to a 2s orbital, its potential energy increases by 3.